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Flame Retardant 3D Printed Plastics

What 3D printed plastics are fire retardant per UL94 or FAR 25.853 flammability standards?

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What 3D Printed Plastics are Flame Retardant?

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FDM ULTEM 9085 (Black, Tan)
UL94 V-0
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FDM ULTEM 1010
UL94 V-0, FAR 25.853
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SLS Nylon 12, FR
FAR 25.853

What makes a plastic flame retardant?

Flame retardant or self-extinguishing criteria are standard flammability requirements used by the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration), automotive, and consumer product industry. Typically, these tests require a material sample to pass a burn specification where the flame extinguishes in a certain period or before an acceptable portion of the material burns. UL-94 V- rates the vertical burn performance, where UL-94 HB ratings describe horizontal specimen burn performance. Many 3D-printed plastics have a UL-94 HB rating, which is the lowest level flammability rating. Typically, passing FAR 25.853 or UL-94 ratings of V-0 and V-1 are "flame-retardant plastics" acceptable for end-use requirements. FAR 25.853 or 14 CFR describes an FAA requirement for burn testing; this often overlaps UL flammability ratings (ANSI/UL 746B).

  • FAR 25.853 is a FAA regulation where the material self-extinguishes after 60 second flame exposure
  • UL94 V-0 is where a vertical specimen self-extinguishes in less than 10 seconds without flaming drip.
  • UL94 V-1 is where a vertical specimen self-extinguishes in less than 30 seconds without flaming drip.
  • UL94 V-2 is where a vertical specimen self-extinguishes in less than 30 seconds with flaming drip.
  • UL94 HB is where a horizontal specimen burns slowly or self-extinguishes. This is the least flame retardant rating.
ULTEM flame retardant plastic self extinguishes after burning

FAR 25.853 versus UL-94 Flammability Ratings

Underwriters Laboratories' guidelines for flammability (UL-94) outline specific test methods and classifications based on flame testing results. UL-94 V-0 is the best result, where a product quickly self-extinguishes without any flaming drips. UL-94 HB is the lowest flammability rating, where the material will not necessarily self-extinguish but burns slowly (e.g., less than 40 mm/min). Parts that pass UL flammability standards may also pass FAR 25.853, criteria for cabin and cargo materials enforced by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). FAR 25.853 60 second test includes 60 seconds of burn exposure, where the specimen may not burn for more than 15 seconds after the flame, and any drips of material will burn less than 3 seconds. During the FAR 25.853 60 second test, no more than six inches of the material specimen should burn to pass. Both tests are valid for classifying flame retardant materials, but the FAR qualification help streamlines suitable flame retardant materials for aerospace and aviation applications.

Video: Will it Melt? 3D Printing Heat Resistance Test

How do different 3D printed materials behave when exposed to a red hot nickel ball?

Video: Will it Melt? 3D Printing Heat Resistance Test

How do different 3D printed materials behave when exposed to a red hot nickel ball?
Will It Melt? 3D Printing Heat Resistance Test

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